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Trends In Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair In Patients 45 Years Old And Younger
Brandon Diaz, M.D., Alexander Chen, D.O., Graham Long, M.D., Rose Callahan, MS, Diane Studzinski, BS, Otto Brown, M.D., J.D..
Beaumont Royal Oak, Royal Oak, MI, USA.

Objective:Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is now the preferred method of repair for most aortic pathology. This report explores the indications, morbidity, and long-term implications of TEVAR in patients under 45 years old.
Methods:This is a retrospective, single-institution study of electronic medical records for all patients under age 45 years treated with TEVAR from July 2006 to December 2022. Data collected included demographics, comorbidities, and 30-day and long term outcomes, including medical and aortic-related complications.
Results:The study cohort consisted of 30 patients, mean age 32 years, 22 males (73.3%), 10 (33.3%) with hypertension, and 15 (50%) were smokers. There were 16 (53.3%) traumatic disruptions, 1 (3.3%) aneurysm, 1 (3.3%) penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer, and 12 (40%) dissections (7 Type A and 5 Type B). Three patients died within 30 days of their procedure for a perioperative mortality rate of 10%; the interval from procedure to death was a mean 4.3 days (SD 3.8). Twenty-one had at least 1 follow-up visit post-TEVAR and 22 underwent at least one follow-up imaging study. Thirty-day morbidity overall was 50% and included endoleak in 6 (20%), cardiac complications in 5 (16.7%), renal failure in 7 (23.3%), spinal cord ischemia in 1 (3.3%), graft failure in 1 (3.3%), limb ischemia in 3 (10%), and multi-system organ failure in 3 (10%). Of the 22 patients with follow-up imaging, endovascular reinterventions were required in 4 (18.2%), while open surgical reintervention was necessary in 1 (4.5%). Reinterventions occurred at a median of 3.7 months postoperatively (0.7-60.8) and were indicated for 1 expanding aneurysm, 3 endoleaks, and 1 for combined endoleak and expanding aneurysm. There was one late death at 1.1 months (aortic-related) and another deceased patient whose cause and date of death are unknown.
Conclusion: Historically, patients that undergo TEVAR for underlying aortic pathologies, especially young patients, are followed long-term to monitor for further aortic degeneration and possible reintervention. In our study, majority of all reinterventions (80%) occurred within 1 year. However, all patients with traumatic aortic disruption who underwent TEVAR did not require any reintervention upon follow-up imaging. These patients may not require surveillance past one year.
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